The loss of sensation and feeling. Also refers to the process
or drugs used to produce this effect. Anesthesia is used in
surgery so that a patient will not feel any pain or discomfort.
Related to the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention
and treatment of obesity.
A surgeon who specializes in the surgical treatment of obesity.
A fluid discharged by the liver into the intestines that helps
in the digestive process.
Biliopancreatic Diversion (BPD)
A surgical procedure used to treat obesity that removes approximately
two-thirds of the stomach and rearranges the intestines so
that digestive enzymes have less contact with the food stream.
This procedure serves to impair nutrient absorption and thus
dramatically reduce caloric absorption, even when average-sized
portions are consumed. While this procedure produces rapid
weight loss that is more significant then with other obesity
surgeries, it also carries a substantially higher risk of
postoperative nutritional problems (including malnutrition).
Also called the Scopinaro procedure.
Body Mass Index (BMI)
The most widely used measurement for obesity. The BMI approximates
body mass using a mathematical ratio of weight and height
[kg/m2 (or lbs/inches2 * 704.5)]. A BMI of 30 or more is regarded
by most health agencies as the threshold for obesity. A BMI
of 40 or more qualifies as morbid obesity. However, note that
the BMI measurement in bodybuilders and athletes may not be
accurate determinants of obesity because the BMI does not
distinguish between muscle and fat.
An umbrella term for more than 100 life-threatening diseases
characterized by the uncontrolled, abnormal growth of malignant
cells. These harmful cells may spread locally or through either
the bloodstream or lymphatic system. One of the comorbidities
associated with morbid obesity.
A medical condition that exists in addition to and is caused
or worsened by obesity or any other primary disease being
studied or treated. With sufficient weight loss, obesity-related
comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension and sleep
apnea generally improve or completely resolve.
Contraindication for Surgery
A factor that renders the carrying out of a surgical procedure
Diabetes Type 2
A chronic endocrine disorder characterized by the inability
to properly utilize sugar, specifically glucose, a simple
carbohydrate. This results in excessively high glucose levels
in the blood. Diabetes involves either relative or absolute
shortage of insulin, a hormone that regulates the body's breakdown
of carbohydrates. A higher percentage of obese individuals
has type 2 diabetes than does the general population.
A physiological reaction frequently seen following gastric
bypass surgery. This operation is designed to alter the function
of the stomach and intestines and interrupt normal digestion.
Therefore, whenever patients eat certain foods, such as sugar
and sweets, they may experience "dumping", characterized
by symptoms of nausea, flushing and sweating, lightheadedness
and watery diarrhea. This complication has been reported by
most gastric bypass patients, while LAP-BAND® System patients do not
suffer from it.
A surgical procedure for the treatment of obesity where a
thumb-sized stomach pouch is created using stapling techniques
to divide the stomach and then connect the outlet of the pouch
directly to the intestine (also known as the bowel), essentially
"bypassing" the lower stomach. The flow of digestive
juices is preserved, however. This procedure achieves its
effect by restricting the volume of food consumed and also
the type of food consumed. Sugars and fats may cause discomfort
known as the "dumping syndrome." Gastric bypass
surgery can be performed via open surgery (one large incision)
or less invasively with laparoscopic techniques (several tiny
incisions), although laparoscopic gastric bypass is performed
infrequently. Produces rapid and significant weight loss but
is associated with higher mortality and complication rates.
Also known as Roux-en-Y or RYGB.
The backward flow of stomach contents into the esophagus due
to a malfunction in the sphincter at the end of esophagus.
This can cause heartburn and discomfort. When it occurs repeatedly,
it may become gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), where
stomach acid can eventually cause scarring of the esophagus
and other chronic problems.
Any of a number of diseases related to the heart and blood
vessels. Also known as coronary artery disease. When grouped
together, these diseases are the leading cause of death in
the United States.
The medical term for high blood pressure. Usually, this means
that a patient has a blood pressure of 140/90 or higher. In
older adults, this number is adjusted upwards slightly. The
top number is systolic pressure (pressure in blood vessels
when the heart is pumping out blood), while the bottom number
represents diastolic pressure (when the heart is at rest).
This condition is also associated with obesity due to the
excess weight that the heart has to sustain.
Generally, this term refers to what a person of a given height
and body frame should weigh. In other words, the desired weight
for optimal health and fitness. There are several problems,
however, with current calculations of ideal weight: a) body
fat percentage or distribution is not accounted for; b) only
some of the tables account for different body frames or ages;
and c) most importantly, there is no consensus about which
formula or table to use. Thus, ideal weight remains subjective.
To illustrate the variation, a height of 5'6" plus a
medium body frame for a female has an ideal weight of between
124 and 149 pounds, depending on the source. This site uses
the the 1983 Metropolitan Life booklet Insurance Company tables
for ideal body weight basic in BMI calculations.
A minimally invasive surgical approach where the surgeon makes
several small incisions to access the interior of the abdomen.
A long, slender camera attached to a light source and long
slender instruments are used to perform the operation. Compared
to the large incision of conventional open surgery, there
is typically less pain and scarring following this operation.
Usually, hospital stay and overall recovery time are also
Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass
A minimally invasive method of performing gastric bypass surgery.
Surgical risks, however, are comparable to that of standard
A disease in which excess weight begins to interfere with
basic physiological functions such as breathing and walking.
Generally, it can be defined as weighing 100 pounds more then
your ideal weight. A more precise indicator, however, is a
Body Mass Index (BMI) of 40 or greater. In addition, a BMI
of 35-39.9 with significant comorbidities can qualify for
weight loss surgery.
A condition where there is excess body weight due to an abnormal
accumulation of fat. Defined objectively as a BMI of 30 or
more, obesity is associated with markedly increased health
A degenerative joint disease that occurs when joint cartilage
wears down and opposing bone surfaces rub against each other.
Osteoarthritis does not result from inflammation like rheumatoid
arthritis. It is usually accompanied by pain and stiffness.
Although the condition tends to occur in the elderly, it is
also associated with obesity, which places undue stress on
weight bearing joints.
A condition to established standards. The weight may result
from bone, fat, muscle, and/or water. Defined objectively
as a Body Mass Index of 25-29.9.
Proteins released by the pancreas that help break down food
during the digestive process. This process creates energy
that can be carried through the body by the blood.
A salt solution (sodium chloride) similar to tears, the body's
natural liquid. Used to fill the inner surface of the LAP-BAND®
System to adjust the degree of restriction and the rate of
A state of being satisfied or gratified to the fullest extent.
In satiety, the person doesn't feel the need for more food.
This is often is equated with complete fullness, in which
the person is unable to eat any more food.
The temporary cessation of breathing during sleep. Typically,
the sufferer will awake gasping for breath. Sleep apnea may
occur repeatedly, resulting in a poor night's sleep and daytime
drowsiness. One of the comorbidities associated with morbid
The outlet to the stomach created by stapling or placing an
adjustable band around its upper part, which divides the stomach
into two parts - the small upper stomach pouch and the lower
stomach - resulting in restriction of the amount of food the
stomach can hold and increasing the time it takes to empty.
The LAP-BAND® Adjustable Gastric Banding System allows the stoma to be adjusted by inflating
or deflating the inner surface of the band in order to modify
the degree of restriction.
A sudden loss of brain function due to a blockage or rupture
in a blood vessel that supplies oxygen to the brain. Depending
on the affected area of the brain, a stroke may lead to muscular
coordination problems, slurred speech, blindness, paresis
(weakness), unconsciousness, paralysis, coma or death. One
of the comorbidities associated with morbid obesity.
Vertical Banded Gastroplasty (VBG)
A surgical procedure for the treatment of morbid obesity that
staples the stomach and reduces its size to a thumb-sized
pouch. The outlet to the pouch is reinforced with a synthetic
mesh band. The result is a marked restriction in the volume
of food that can be consumed, inducing the feeling of satiety
after only a few bites. VBG is a technically simple operation
but is rarely performed through the minimally invasive approach.
Staple line disruption results in weight regain. Also known
as "Stomach Stapling" or "Gastric Stapling."